Mandating and enforcing culture
The English word "Turkish" comes from the ancient Turkish word Türk , which can be used as an adjective or a proper noun. After decades of nationalistic indoctrination, most citizens self-identify as Turks regardless of ethnic background.Some of the major non-Turkish ethnic groups—the Kurds in the southeast, the Arabs in the south, the Laz of the western Black Sea coast, and the Georgians in the northeast and northwest—express double identities. Turkey occupies Asia Minor and a small portion of Europe.The Black Sea region has a moderate climate and higher than average rainfall. The west is noted for agriculture, including grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and tobacco.In the more humid east, the mountains leave a narrow coastal plain rarely exceeding twenty miles wide.The choice also symbolized Atatürk's policy of nationalism, because Ankara was more Turkish and less cosmopolitan than the old capital. The interior consists of mountains, hills, valleys, and a high central plateau.The western coastal plains are generally more densely populated and industrial than are the central and eastern regions, except for Ankara on the central Anatolian plateau.
A tribal social organization survived longer in this area among the Turkish and Kurdish peoples.Its area is 301,382 square miles (814,578 square kilometers).It is bounded on the west by the Aegean Sea; on the northwest by the Sea of Marmara, Greece, and Bulgaria; on the north by the Black Sea; on the east by Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran; and on the south by Iraq, Syria, and the Mediterranean.Thus, many western Black Sea men sought work outside the region in the navy and merchant marine or in major cities, later returning home to retire.While the men worked away, the women kept up the home, farmed the land, and cared for the livestock.