Dating italian phrases
Nevertheless, Proto-Indo-European is considered to be the fundamental root language of all European languages and is certainly the root of Latin.Linguistic history suggests that by around the 3rd millennium BC the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language had diverged into separate branches.The numbering system operates according essentially to the basic rules that: Latin is the language of ancient Rome, whose empire covered most of Europe around the beginning of the first millennium, and particularly the period of the Roman Empire's strongest dominance, c.300BC-300AD.The Latin language of the Roman civilization was derived from the much older main Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), dated as far back as the 10th millennium BC, extending from the Indian sub-continent through Europe (hence its name - proto means first, see proto), coinciding with the basic colonization of European lands, although precise history of this remains subject to much debate and ongoing research.One of these branches became early or ancient Latin, established in the Italian peninsular (i.e., modern Italy).
Zeus, having the strength of a god, accidentally broke off one of Amalthea's horns, which he then endowed with the power to produce unending nourishment (and anything else desired) for its ownertake (a comment) with a grain of salt/add a note of caution to a comment (in Roman times and more recent history too, salt was very valuable and symbolic of something not to regard lightly - Roman soldiers were paid in salt - salarium - hence the expression 'worth his salt' (someone is worthy of his/her wage)(technical clarification of the nature of a statement so as to differentiate) - the wording of the statement/(as distinct from) the thing that the statement refers to - these are two contrasting terms used in philosophical discussion/works differentiating between the form of the statement and what the statement refers to - (while quite subtle and technical, these two terms are useful in highlighting the difference between the qualities of a statement as distinct from the truth or otherwise of what the statement seeks to convey) - for example many children's statements can be criticized 'de dicto', while being brilliant 'de re' - (note that there are more complex applications of these terms)in English money history 'D' or 'd' for denarius came to denote pence in pre-decimalisation pounds shillings pence (LSD) - (the denari equated loosely to a labourer's daily pay) - the L and S in LSD also originated from ancient Latin, 'libra' and 'solidus nummus'denoting the title holder (for example a professor) has retired and retains the title (plus the word 'emeritus') as a mark of having served with distinction - the original meaning derives from soldiers in the Roman army, from the verb 'mereri', to earnand other men/women/factors (et al is the abbreviation - et alii is 'and other men'; et aliae is 'and other women'; et alia is 'and other things' - traditionally speech etiquette suggested that "...educated people do not ever actually say 'et al', instead they say 'and others'...")realization, acknowledgment, and accusation that an apparent trusted friend or ally is actually an enemy - the expression was popularized by Plutarch's and Shakespeare's telling of the killing of Julius Caesar by conspirators including his previous friend Brutusfrom a small sample the whole thing can be estimated - an early principle of extrapolation or projection, said to derive from Pythagoras' calculations in estimating the size of Hercules from his foot size, in turn inferred from the scale of the Olympia stadium Title first given to Henry VIII of England by Pope Leo X in 1521.
Removed by Rome c.1530 after Henry divorced catholic Catherine of Arragon, and reinistated later in his reign as defender of the protestant faith.
The title endures to modern times, shown in official references and on British coins, usually abbreviated other words, in more detail, or to say more clearly and fully..
Its resilience would be extraordinary were Latin a living language.
Latin is obviously vital for the operation of many fundamental professions and disciplines, and for the rest of us, Latin remains fascinating and helpful in the understanding of our day-to-day language, especially the Latin expressions and terminology which survive and arise in business, technical definitions, law, education, grammar, and science, etc.