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To compare bond polarities, compare the difference in the electronegativities between the atoms.The difference between carbon (with an electronegativity of 2.55) and sulfur…A carbon-oxygen bond is more polar than a carbon-hydrogen bond, because the difference in electronegativity between carbon and oxygen is greater than the difference in electronegativity between carbon and hydrogen.The bond between carbon and chlorine is more polar than the bond between carbon and sulfur.The new method is based on the fact that over the past 60 years, environmental levels of radiocarbon have been significantly perturbed by mid-20th-century episodes of above-ground nuclear weapons testing.Before the nuclear age, the amount of radiocarbon in the environment varied little in the span of a century.

Danielle Mc Leod-Henning is a program manager and physical scientist at NIJ. Over the past six decades, the amount of radiocarbon in people or their remains depends heavily on when they were born or, more precisely, when their tissues were formed.Forensic anthropologists at The University of Arizona took advantage of this fact in a recent study funded by NIJ.The researchers found that certain soft tissues — notably blood, nails and hair — had radiocarbon levels identical to the contemporary atmosphere.Therefore, the radiocarbon level in those tissues post-mortem would indicate the year of death.

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